S-Parameters

Consider the 2-port network below:

load

$$\ \left( \begin{matrix} b_1 \\ b_2 \end{matrix} \right) = \left( \begin{matrix} S_{11} & S_{12} \\ S_{21} & S_{22} \end{matrix} \right) \left( \begin{matrix} a_1 \\ a_2 \end{matrix} \right) $$ $$\ \begin{align} S_{11}& = Reflection \ Coefficient \ at \ input \\ S_{21}& = Forward \ gain \\ S_{12}& = Reverse \ Isolation \\ S_{22}& = Reflection \ Coefficient \ at \ output \end{align} $$

References:

  1. How to Measure a Transmitter and VSWR with a Power Meter: Bird Technologies
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