Comprehensive testing and data collection is commonly referred to as PVT(Process, Voltage, Temperature) characterization.
Devices specially manufactured with controlled fabrication process variations are typically available for test.
For CMOS devices,
As process geometries shrink, i.e. L decreases, I increases, devices charge and discharge faster, so frequency of operation increases.
Tests are repeated at the min/nom max tolerance for the power supply voltage which should be part of the device specifications. Higher Vdd means higher current I, so frequency of operation increases.
Tests are repeated for the specified variation in temperature. Higher temperature means more collisions of charge carriers, which slows down the circuit, i.e. frequency of operation decreases. However, for processes smaller than 65nm, temperature inversion occurs.
Min/Nom/Max supply and temperature testing may be part of the production flow on industrial grade devices or devices intended for automotive use.